Ternate In The Early Period (An Attempt to Determine the Birth Date of the City) Part I

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     Actually  to define the birth date of the city of Ternate is not that difficult, since the founding of the city has been defined with an act by the central goverment, which clearly stated the issued date. However the common tendency to choose an older date - the better if a lot older than other cities - shows the certain settlement had existed long before the official goverment's decision for its city status. In the case of Ternate  island, the ruins of old forts are clear proofs that the settlements here had existed ever since the 16th and 17th century, while the myths trace its origin even to earlier periods. The developments of the city that now covers the entire island  provides reason for the people to find a certain date that precedes the founding of the city which was centered in a region called Malayu.
     The term city in Indonesia had grown expansively in its meaning in time. Originally asa a defense fort, the term city was later used for settlement surrounded by walls, then was used to call the settlement itself even though without surrounding walls, but of those having the characteristic which differ them from rural settlement. If in Western Europe, in England for instance, there is a diference between town and city (the later being found on a charter), in our country  it is known as development from city to city which is also based on a governmental Act.
     The city of Ternate we know now had grown and developed in the area called Malayu, around fort of VOC called  Fort Orange. Therefore, the first possibility that could be considered in determining its birth date is the date of the building of the fort by Cornelis Matelieft Jr. in May 26 1607. Yet there are aspirations for a much earlier date, by the fact that the city of Ternate now covers the entire island. This paper shall explore several important events in Ternate history as the basis to determine the date of the city's founding.
Countinue Part II........(Adrian B. Lapian)

Determining The Birth Date of Ternate Part V

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Which date ?
      Now,to find the exact date. If mere yeras were never recorded in the manuscripts above,let alone dates! Defining the birth dates of Indonesian cities is never easy. The birth dates of most Indonesian cities are fictive. Here are a few examples. Jakarta's Birthday, on June 22, based on the fall of Sunda Kelapa to Falatehan, is a fictitious date,even though the years is in accordance with historical fact (1572). In the historical resources used to define the date of Jakarta's birth,which are the Portuguese recources, the date of Falatehan's victory over Sunda Kelapa was not recorded. The birth date of Tondano city is also fictitious since is was taken from the birthday of Sam Ratulangi
     For Ternate's birth date I humbly suggest date we use the date of the declaration of Ternate as a city,which is April 27, although the date has no direct relevancy to years 1250.
     From the arguments stated above,it could be said,that the Act of Ternate island (and beyond) as a city April 27 1999 is a re-legitimatization of an ongoing reality from the years 1250. Yet the history of the city is along stretch from the year 1250,therefore the age of Ternate City is now 753 years old. The End

Determining the Birth Date of Ternate Part IV

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Catatan Harian Zen
 2. The Meaning of History
     The meaning of historical writing,as seen in the manuscripts,is different with the meaning of history acadamic sense recently. The past writing of history, as seen in the manuscripts written in 19th century,have two purposes : first, to recover the "four pillars" order; secongd, also to legitimate the power of the kings (sultans). Therefore history in the past (according the definition of history nowadays) were actually myths for providing "the legitimatization to the boundaries of physics and cosmic of a world and its people" (Andaya). Because from time to time the "boundaries of the physics and cosmic" changed, threfore it is not unusual if its form of legitimatization undergone changes from time to time (as seen in various versions above). In the 17th century (according to the manuscripts of Ternate history quoted by Valentijn), "Maluku Kie Raha" had not yet manifested in the early period of Ternate kingdom, and foreign influences were not dominant, "the golden rice pastle and mortar" myth thus became the starting point of the geneology of Ternate kings. Yet when the people realized that the world and society had changed completely as in the 19th century, an appropriate legitimazation was thus needed for the time being, that is, the myth of "Jafar Sadek" in uniting the four kingdoms.
      "History" of Ternate manuscripts quoted by Valentijn, was to legitimate the first king of Ternate who succeeded in uniting the island of Ternate ("episodic time"). Therefore to define the birth date of Ternate, it is important to define when the first "Kolano" in Ternate appeared, who succeeded in uniting all "momoles" in Ternate (uniting Ternate island).
       Related with this, I think the version in Valentijn's book is the oldest version and the most comprehensive of Ternate history. I will elaborate on this further to find the yardstick for the birth date of Ternate. The manuscripts used by Valentijn seems to the most popular until at least the 17th century. Valentijn wrote that the geneology of the kings of Ternate in this book was based on two major resources :
  1. Three Ternatans, which were Hasi, Ali and Baungasari from soa Tomagola, who were exiled by the Dutch to Ambon in 1675 to 1692. Valentijn was in Ambon around thet time in 1686 to 1694, and interviewed them.
  2. A manuscripts written by Jogugu Marsaoli from Ternate who "is still alive in March 27 1697". Valentijn acquired the manuscripts in 1681 and used it as major source for his book on the history of Ternate before the Europeans arrived. Unfortunately, the manuscripts of Jogugu Marsaoli ha not been found until now.
     The geneology of the kings of Ternate according to Jogugu Marsaoli's version quoted by Valentijin, started with the four "momoles" in Tobona which located on a mountain top, one day found, "the golden rice pastle and mortar". However, since were too many people came back and forth to see those strange things, she gave them away to "momole" Mole ma-titi in Foramadiahi which was located in the slope of the mountain. Yet Mole ma-titi was also unable to handle them and gave them to "momole" Cico in Sampalu located on the beach. Cico succeeded in controlling the people who "troubled" Guna and Mole ma-titi, and was crowned "kolano" by all "momoles" in Ternate island.
     The simbolical tale from valentijn's book has four important matters in the history of Ternate :
     First, the first king or "kolano" of Ternate kingdom was Cico who was a relative to Guna and Molo ma-titi.
     Second, the shape of "rice pastle and mortar" are not different from the clove shape, threfore "rice pastle and mortar" could symbolize the prosperity of the people of Ternate.
     Third, the "rice pastle and mortar", which finally dettled in the hand of Cico on the beach, symbolize the beginning of clove trading in Ternate.
     Fourth, even though Cico became the first "kolano: in Ternate, what made it possible was the "rice pastle and mortar" from Guna in Tobona,threfore the origin of power in ternate sholud be traced back to Guna.
     The Jogugu Marsaoli's account from the 17th century is important since it is the only manuscripts which included a few numeral years, first is about Guna who was said to be "momole" in Tobona "around the years of 1250". The years was not written in Jogugu Marsaoli's manuscripts, but was a result of mathematical estimation by Valentijn.
     In the geneology of Jogugu Marsaoli, there was 10 generation's of Ternate Kings from Guna Bayan Sirullah. If we suppose one generation's life span is about 25 yeras, then 10 generations would have a time span around 250 yeras (10x25 = 250). Also because there is a definite documentation (from the Portuguese), that Bayan Sirullah ruled in1521 (of course he had been crowned long before that yeras, yet colud not be defined exactly when), therefore the time distance from Guna to Bayan Sirullah is 1521-1250 = 271 years, which is still around 250 years as mentioned above. Therefore i come to the conclusion, that Ternate island was integrated in 1250, thus the year 1250 is the birth year of ternate. To be Contuined... part V
(R.Z. Leirissa)

Determining the Birth Date of Ternate Part III

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Barjaha 9

1. The Time Concept
Scientifically speaking,history could be said as a study of human in time dimension. Time is the crucial dimension in historical studies,yet it becomes less crucial in social and other humanities studies. But the fact is, the concept of time is different according to each culture. In westren civilization, time in history is seen as chronology or linear forward movement (not the same as in the scientific sense). In Ternate culture and the eastren Indonesia in general (which actually covers the pasific world also), there are two different time concepts first, time as "cyclical motion" or movements forming a circle as if things happens repeatedly time and again. Secondly, time in the sense of "episodic time" or time being segmented araound certain personalities. Both concepts are different but overlapping.
In the manuscripts of the history of Ternate above, time as "cyclical motion" was demonstrated by the "four pillars" (later know as "Maluku Kie Raha") and the dualism "patalima and patasiwa." The manifestation of time in the sense of "episodic time" in those manuscripts relied on famous or charismatic personalities, without chronology (in westrrn meaning of the word).
If we take Valentijn's version (which was actually based on a manuscript written in Ternate in the 17th century(, the "cyclical motion" could be seen in the four "momoles" who founded the Ternate Kingdom,they were Momole Guna who lived in Tobona,Momole molo ma-titi who lived in Foramadiahi, Momole Cico who lived in Sampalo, and another momole whose name was not mentioned, but, according to valentijn,could very possibly lived in Takome. The fact tha Mamole cico who was later crowned as "kolano",manifested the patalima spirit. In the manuscript,written by Valentijn, the cyclical repetition of the "four pillars" concept could be seen in goverment hierarchy,social structure,and etcetera.
The important "Episodic time" from Valentijn's version was the crowning of Cico as the kolano of Ternate island, the journey of Gapi Baguna and Zainal Abidin to Malay (Malacca) and Java then embraced Islam, etcetera. The fact that the two time concepts,cyclical and episodic,are overlapping each other is apparent in the fact of the re-emergence of the Cico tale and the "four pillars".
Rather different from manuscript used by Valentjn,in the manuscripts of Ternate history written in the 19th century,the "cyclical motion" of the "four pillars" is "Maluku Kie Raha" (Ternate,Tidore, Bacan and Jailolo), yet centered on Jafar Sadek (thus also forms the Patalima). "Four pillars" also repets itself in the goverment structure,social structure,even in daily lives.
If the order of "for pillars" fell short or distored (in other word,if the society was in decline),there would be a process of recovery until the "for pillars" re-ordered itself.
An example from Tidore,on the attempt to recover the distored "four pillars" was the rebellion of Nuku (Katoppo) or the rebellion in Gamrange (Leirissa).
In Ternate, recovery of the distored "four pillars" (by colonialsm) was done mythically in the writing of history in the 19th century (the above manuscirpts). To be Contuined Part IV.............

Determining the Birth Date of Ternate Part II

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      The history of Ternate should meet the historical criterions stated above,which is actions done consciously by the Ternatan in the past. It should be admitted that,our historians themselves have not been able to write a comprehensive and complete history of Ternate until today. The academics in ternate need to be reminded for that.
      Actually to write a comprehensive history of Ternate,even the history of North Moluccas,we have plenty of historical resources. Basically.the sources of history could be break down into (a) literatures written in "jawi" alpabets and Ternate languange,and (b) reports and official letters of the westerners (achrival documents) written in Portuguese or Dutch.
 a.  First, the literatures written by the officials of Ternate Kingdom in the past. We have at least two    hand-written manuscripts on the history of Ternate :
  • "Hikayat Ternate (Tale of Ternate)" written by Naidah who was a Hukum Soa Sio in 1859-1861. 
     His "Hikayat Ternate" writings ended in 1861 (at the era of Sultan Mohammad Arsad), therefore it is  highly possible that Naidah's manuscript was composed during that year. Until now the original manuscript it lost, and could only be read in its published form in a magazine by P.A.Van der Crab who was head of Ternate Residency at the time. The manusscript was published in three language,the original (Ternate), its translation into Malay languange,and the dutch translation (based on Malaytranslation). According to Dr.Chris van Fraassen who conducted a research an the manuscript in Ternate with the assitance of Mr.H.Abdul Habib Jiko. the Malay translation (therefore the Dutch Translation as well) had, in mani ways, deviated from its original languange.
    • "Hikayat Ternate (Tale of Ternate)', an anonymous manuscript, is kept in the library of Leiden University in the Netherlands. The history of ternate in this manuscript is a lot shorter compared to naidah's, dated only until 1801 (the era of the British occuption).
b.  Second,the archival documents by the westerners (reports, hand-written letters), which fall into two
     categories :
  •  From the Portuguese,which are wll-kept in the National Archive of Portuguese in Lisabon, and
  •  From the Dutch, (VOC and the Dutch Indies) which are also wll kept in the National Archive of       Indonesia in Jakarta and the national Archive of the Netherlands Kingdom in Den Haag. 
     Yet the historical tales as mentioned above may be of some use. The works written by the kingdom officials had various versions of the Ternatan Sultans' family tree specifically and others sultanes in North Moluccas generally. There is also another manuscript used by Fr. Valentijn in this book, oud en Nieuw O ost-indien, Part I,published in Dortretch in 1724. A German named A. bastian also wrote about the family tree in his book, Die Molukken, published in Berlin in 1884. These various genealogies, seen from the early period, could be used as yardstick to decide the birth date of Ternate.
     From the two manuscript and two books above, Dr. Van Fraassen, a Dutch who studied the history of the Ternate culture, compiled some of the various genealogies of ternatan king from those manuscript. From these family trees, he only wrote the earlier period. Yet the early period is imperative for us to find the early history of Ternate and also to decide ternate's birth year. Joint at.....Part III
Sumber : R.Z. Leirissa

Determining the Birth Date of Ternate

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Ternate : Town,Island,Kingdom, City ?
      Before attempting to determine the birth date of Ternate, we must firs try to understand the meaning of the trem "ternate". The term is used to name a (1) town; (2) island; (3) kingdom, and now also (4) city. Form the meaning, now in which sense do we decide the birth date of Ternate ?
1. Town
     As the name of a town,  "Ternate" was only used since the years 1609 when VOC built the fort in the Melayu region bearing the name "Fort Oranje " and when Sultan Mudafar (1606-1627) built his royal palace not far from the fort. Since then,the town which flourished around the fort and the palace was know by the name of Ternate until now
 2. Island
     However,simultaneously,since the era of the Dutch ruling (beginning og the 17 th century) until now, the term ternate is also used as geographical term that refers to an island in The North Moluccas archipelago. The Portuguese documents sice the 16 th century had also reffering the term of ternate for the name Island.
3.  Kingdom
     However, in several literatur or "historical tales",and also in folklores, the term Ternate was used as the name for a kingdom. The term in the sense was also used used by historians in the 18 th century named Fr.Valentijn, or A. Bastian in the 19 th century. The portuguese and the Dutch also used the term Ternate within the context of a kingdom, as well as an island.
4.  City
     On April 27 1999, an act for the city status of Ternate was issud. The region of the consist of the entire Ternate Island and several other small island beyond.
5.  Conclusion
     To decide on the birthday of Ternate,of course we could not base it on the construction of the Fort Oranje in 1609,even though the date is important within the reference of the Ternate city nowadays. We also could not rely on the date of the construction of the Portuguese Fort San jao Bautista which was completed on February 15 1523. Both dates were in fact very closely related wth the development of two towns 9ternate and Gamalama), yet both dates are part of the colonial history, or the activities undertaken consciously by the colonizers in the past.
      We must search for a certain date that refers to the history of Indonesia that is the actions undertaken by the Indonesians in the past,in this case the actions or activities rendered by the ternatens themselves. Speaking in the context, the issue date of the act on Ternate as a City has an interisting point, since it goes wll wtih the definition of history as stated above. However, if we limit the scope back to 1999 only, we have in fact neglected the long history of Ternate. Since birth date usually happened in the past, there fore to define the birth date of Ternate we have to deal with history and sources of history. To be Contuined............Part II

Sumber : R.Z. Leirissa