Determining the Birth Date of Ternate Part IV

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Catatan Harian Zen
 2. The Meaning of History
     The meaning of historical writing,as seen in the manuscripts,is different with the meaning of history acadamic sense recently. The past writing of history, as seen in the manuscripts written in 19th century,have two purposes : first, to recover the "four pillars" order; secongd, also to legitimate the power of the kings (sultans). Therefore history in the past (according the definition of history nowadays) were actually myths for providing "the legitimatization to the boundaries of physics and cosmic of a world and its people" (Andaya). Because from time to time the "boundaries of the physics and cosmic" changed, threfore it is not unusual if its form of legitimatization undergone changes from time to time (as seen in various versions above). In the 17th century (according to the manuscripts of Ternate history quoted by Valentijn), "Maluku Kie Raha" had not yet manifested in the early period of Ternate kingdom, and foreign influences were not dominant, "the golden rice pastle and mortar" myth thus became the starting point of the geneology of Ternate kings. Yet when the people realized that the world and society had changed completely as in the 19th century, an appropriate legitimazation was thus needed for the time being, that is, the myth of "Jafar Sadek" in uniting the four kingdoms.
      "History" of Ternate manuscripts quoted by Valentijn, was to legitimate the first king of Ternate who succeeded in uniting the island of Ternate ("episodic time"). Therefore to define the birth date of Ternate, it is important to define when the first "Kolano" in Ternate appeared, who succeeded in uniting all "momoles" in Ternate (uniting Ternate island).
       Related with this, I think the version in Valentijn's book is the oldest version and the most comprehensive of Ternate history. I will elaborate on this further to find the yardstick for the birth date of Ternate. The manuscripts used by Valentijn seems to the most popular until at least the 17th century. Valentijn wrote that the geneology of the kings of Ternate in this book was based on two major resources :
  1. Three Ternatans, which were Hasi, Ali and Baungasari from soa Tomagola, who were exiled by the Dutch to Ambon in 1675 to 1692. Valentijn was in Ambon around thet time in 1686 to 1694, and interviewed them.
  2. A manuscripts written by Jogugu Marsaoli from Ternate who "is still alive in March 27 1697". Valentijn acquired the manuscripts in 1681 and used it as major source for his book on the history of Ternate before the Europeans arrived. Unfortunately, the manuscripts of Jogugu Marsaoli ha not been found until now.
     The geneology of the kings of Ternate according to Jogugu Marsaoli's version quoted by Valentijin, started with the four "momoles" in Tobona which located on a mountain top, one day found, "the golden rice pastle and mortar". However, since were too many people came back and forth to see those strange things, she gave them away to "momole" Mole ma-titi in Foramadiahi which was located in the slope of the mountain. Yet Mole ma-titi was also unable to handle them and gave them to "momole" Cico in Sampalu located on the beach. Cico succeeded in controlling the people who "troubled" Guna and Mole ma-titi, and was crowned "kolano" by all "momoles" in Ternate island.
     The simbolical tale from valentijn's book has four important matters in the history of Ternate :
     First, the first king or "kolano" of Ternate kingdom was Cico who was a relative to Guna and Molo ma-titi.
     Second, the shape of "rice pastle and mortar" are not different from the clove shape, threfore "rice pastle and mortar" could symbolize the prosperity of the people of Ternate.
     Third, the "rice pastle and mortar", which finally dettled in the hand of Cico on the beach, symbolize the beginning of clove trading in Ternate.
     Fourth, even though Cico became the first "kolano: in Ternate, what made it possible was the "rice pastle and mortar" from Guna in Tobona,threfore the origin of power in ternate sholud be traced back to Guna.
     The Jogugu Marsaoli's account from the 17th century is important since it is the only manuscripts which included a few numeral years, first is about Guna who was said to be "momole" in Tobona "around the years of 1250". The years was not written in Jogugu Marsaoli's manuscripts, but was a result of mathematical estimation by Valentijn.
     In the geneology of Jogugu Marsaoli, there was 10 generation's of Ternate Kings from Guna Bayan Sirullah. If we suppose one generation's life span is about 25 yeras, then 10 generations would have a time span around 250 yeras (10x25 = 250). Also because there is a definite documentation (from the Portuguese), that Bayan Sirullah ruled in1521 (of course he had been crowned long before that yeras, yet colud not be defined exactly when), therefore the time distance from Guna to Bayan Sirullah is 1521-1250 = 271 years, which is still around 250 years as mentioned above. Therefore i come to the conclusion, that Ternate island was integrated in 1250, thus the year 1250 is the birth year of ternate. To be Contuined... part V
(R.Z. Leirissa)

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